Acronyms and Abbreviations used in the computer world

Updated: Nov 19, 2020

Daily we encounter scores, if not hundreds, of acronyms and abbreviations while surfing the net. Most of the time, we just ignore and just consider them useless. Some of the time, it is imperative that we know what do they mean and we couldn’t find the answer. Even if we find what they stand for, it is difficult to get the meaning out of those words. This occurs to me a lot of times and I realized that will it not be helpful for my readers to at least explain some of the very common ones used and encountered by us all the time.


I will start with some usual ones and the rest I will just put in a table for your eyes only.


File Extensions

  • .apk = This file extension is used for the android package file. Android Package (APK) is the package file format used by the Android operating system for the distribution and installation of mobile apps and middleware.

  • .avi = Multimedia Audio/Video file. This file is used by windows to play a video file.

  • .bmp = Windows bitmap. These non-compressed image files contain a file header and the pixels of the associated bitmap.

  • .cab = Windows cabinet file. A CAB file is a Windows Cabinet file saved in an archive format native to Microsoft Windows that supports.ZIP, Quantum, and LZX data compression algorithms. A CAB file contains compressed data and is used for Windows software installations such as system files, network components, and device drivers.

  • .com = MS-DOS command file. A COM file is an executable program capable of being run by MS-DOS and Windows. It is saved in a binary format and is similar to an.EXE file, but differs in that it has a maximum size of roughly 64KB and it has no header or metadata.

  • .csv = Comma-separated Values or fields. A CSV file is a comma-separated values file commonly used by spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel or OpenOffice Calc. It contains plain text data sets separated by commas with each new line in the CSV file representing a new database row and each database row consisting of one or more fields separated by a comma. CSV files are often opened by spreadsheet programs to be organized into cells or used for transferring data between databases.

  • .dat = Data file. DAT file extensions are generic files that can be created by almost any program. These files can contain data in binary or text format. If the data is in text format, you may be able to view it using a text editor like Notepad.

  • .doc and .docx = Microsoft Word file. A DOC file is a Word processing document created by Microsoft Word, or another word processing program, such as OpenOffice Writer or Apple Pages. It may contain formatted text, images, tables, graphs, charts, page formatting, and print settings. DOCX files are widely used in the home, academic, and business environments for drafting letters, resumes, invitations, newsletters, and other documents.

  • .exe = Executable file, PC application file. An EXE file is an executable file created for the Windows operating system to install or run a software program. It contains binary machine code compiled from source code that is directly executable by the CPU and may also include resources that make up the program's GUI such as icons and graphics. EXE files can be opened and run by double-clicking them.

  • .gif = Graphics Interchange Format. A GIF file is an image file often used for web graphics. It may contain up to 256 indexed colors with a color palette that may be a predefined set of colors or may be adapted to the colors in the image. GIF files are saved in a lossless format, meaning the clarity of the image is not compromised with GIF compression.

  • .h264 = H.264 video File. The H264 file format was developed by Apple to store digital video data that has been recorded using the MPEG-4 H264 codec. These H264 files allow seamless transmissions of high-quality video data through 3G networks for mobile viewing.

  • .htm and .html = HTML/Hypertext Markup Language file. An HTML file is a webpage coded in HTML that can be displayed in a web browser. It is used to format text, tables, images, and other content that is displayed on a webpage. HTML files are widely used on the web as most pages within static websites have a .html extension.

  • .jpeg or .jpg = JPEG image (Joint Photographic Expert Group). A JPEG file is an image saved in a compressed graphic format standardized by the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG). It supports up to 24-bit color and is compressed using lossy compression, which may noticeably reduce the image quality if high amounts of compression are used. JPEG files are commonly used for storing digital photos and web graphics.

  • .MOV or.QT= QuickTime Audio/Video. A file with the MOV file extension is an Apple QuickTime Movie file that's stored in a QuickTime File Format (QTFF) container file. A MOV file can store audio, video, and text in the same file through different tracks, or the tracks can point to the data stored elsewhere in another file.

  • .mp3 = MP3 audio file. An MP3 file is an audio file that uses a compressed audio format developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group that uses "Layer 3" audio compression. It is commonly used to store music files and audiobooks on a hard drive and may provide near-CD quality sound (stereo, 16-bit) in a file roughly 1/10 the size of a.WAV or.AIF file.

  • .mp4 = MPEG-4 Video File. An MP4 file is a multimedia file commonly used to store a movie or video clip, but may also contain subtitles or images. MP4 is short for MPEG-4 Part 14, which is a container format based on the QuickTime File Format (QTFF) used by.MOV and. QT files.

  • .png = Portable Network Graphics. The format uses lossless compression and is generally considered the replacement to the GIF image format. However, unlike GIF, PNG files do not support animations.

  • .ppt = PowerPoint presentation.

  • .rtf = Rich Text Format. An RTF file is a common text file format that supports "rich text." It includes several types of text formatting, such as bold type, italics, different fonts, and font sizes, and custom tab settings. RTF files can also support images such as as.JPG and.PNG files saved within the text file.

  • .tmp = Temporary file. A TMP file is a temporary file created automatically by a software program that usually serves as a backup or cache file. It is sometimes created as an invisible file and is often deleted when the program is closed. TMP files may also be called "temp files.

  • .txt = ASCII text. A TXT file is a standard text document that contains the unformatted text. It is recognized by any text editing or word processing program and can also be processed by most other software programs.

  • .wav = Windows sound. It’s a container audio file that stores data in segments. It was created by Microsoft and IBM and has become the standard PC audio file format.

  • .xls or .xlsx = Microsoft Excel file.

  • .zip = PC Zip Compressed Archive. A ZIP file is an archive that contains one or more files compressed or "zipped" using Zip compression. It stores files separately from each other allowing the files to be compressed using different methods and extracted without compressing or decompressing the entire archive.

  • .pdf = Portable Document Format. A PDF file is a multi-platform document created by Adobe Acrobat or another PDF application. The PDF format is commonly used for saving documents and publications in a standard format that can be viewed on multiple platforms. In many cases, PDF files are created from existing documents instead of from scratch.

Computer abbreviations or acronyms

  • BIOS = Basic Input Output System. It’s a firmware that came pre-installed from the company. This is the software that initializes the system when it starts.

  • DRAM = Dynamic – Random Access Memory. It is a type of memory that is typically used for data or program code that a computer processor needs to function. Random access allows the PC processor to access any part of the memory directly rather than having to proceed sequentially from a starting place. RAM is located close to a computer's processor and enables faster access to data.

  • FAT = File Allocation table. A file allocation table (FAT) is a file system developed for hard drives that originally used 12 or 16 bits for each cluster entry into the file allocation table. It is used by the operating system (OS) to manage files on hard drives and other computer systems.

  • GHz = Gigahertz. Short for gigahertz, GHz is a unit of measurement for AC (alternating current) or EM (electromagnetic) wave frequencies equal to 1,000,000,000 (one billion) Hz (hertz). When referring to a computer processor or CPU, GHz is a clock frequency, also known as a clock rate or clock speed, representing a cycle of time.

  • OS = Operating System. It is the program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all of the other application programs on a computer.

  • USB = Universal Serial Bus. Universal Serial Bus is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and connectors and protocols for connection, communication and power supply between computers, peripheral devices, and other computers.

Internet abbreviations

  • FTP = File Transfer Protocol. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol for transferring copies of files from one computer to another. An FTP client is a program that allows you to move files between computers.

  • HTML = HyperText Markup Language. HTML is used to create electronic documents (called pages) that are displayed on the World Wide Web. Each page contains a series of connections to other pages called hyperlinks.

  • HTTP = HyperText Transfer Protocol. It is an application-layer protocol used primarily on the World Wide Web. HTTP uses a client-server model where the web browser is the client and communicates with the web server that hosts the website.

  • HTTPS = Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure

  • ISP = Internet Service Provider. An Internet Service Provider is a company that provides Internet access to organizations and home users.

  • LAN = Local Area Network. It is a collection of devices connected in one physical location, such as a building, office, or home. A LAN can be small or large, ranging from a home network with one user to an enterprise network with thousands of users and devices in an office or school.

  • MAC = Media Access Control (address). A MAC address is given to a network adapter when it is manufactured. It is hardwired or hard-coded onto your computer's network interface card (NIC) and is unique to it.

  • PHP = Hypertext Preprocessor. It is a popular general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to web development. Fast, flexible, and pragmatic, PHP powers everything from your blog to the most popular websites in the world.

  • SEA = Search Engine Advertising. Search engine advertising (SEA) is a branch of online marketing. Advertisements in the form of a text or images are posted on search engines such as Google or Bing.

  • SEM = Search Engine Marketing

  • SEO = Search Engine Optimization. It is the process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,” “editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines.

  • SMTP = Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is the server that sends mail with email programs.

  • TCP/IP = Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a standard that defines how to establish and maintain a network conversation via which application programs can exchange data. TCP works with the Internet Protocol (IP), which defines how computers send packets of data to each other. Together, TCP and IP are the basic rules defining the Internet.

  • UDP = User Datagram Protocol. It is a communications protocol that is primarily used for establishing low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet. It speeds up transmissions by enabling the transfer of data before an agreement is provided by the receiving party.

  • URL = Uniform Resource Locator. It is the address of a resource (such as a document or website) on the Internet that consists of a communications protocol followed by the name or address of a computer on the network and that often includes additional locating information (such as directory and file names) —called also uniform resource locator, universal resource locator.

  • WLAN = Wireless Local Area Network. It is a wireless distribution method for two or more devices that use high-frequency radio waves and often include an access point to the Internet.

  • WiFi = It is based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance.


The List is exhausting, for more please visit the sites below.


References:

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/basics_of_computer_science/basics_of_computer_science_abbreviations.htm

http://www.vidyagyaan.com/computer-knowledge/used-abbreviation-related-computer-full-forms/

https://www.macmillandictionary.com/thesaurus-category/british/abbreviations-used-in-computing-and-on-the-internet

https://geekflare.com/tech-abbreviations/

https://it.nmu.edu/docs/common-windows-file-extensions

http://www.vidyagyaan.com/computer-knowledge/list-of-computer-file-extensions-and-their-meaning/


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